§ 13. The parent Indo-Germanic language had the following vowel-system :—
Short vowels a, e, i, o, u
Long „ ā, ē, ī, ō, ū
Diphthongs ai, ei, oi, au, eu, ou
Short vocalic 1, m, n, r
Note.—1. ə, the quality of which cannot be precisely defined, is omitted from the above table as being of little importance for the purposes of this book. It became a in all the Indo-Germanic languages, except in the Aryan branch, where it became i, as Gr. pathr, Lat. pater, OIr. athir, Goth. fadar, OHG. fater, Skr. pitár- (from *pətér-), father.
2. The long vocalic nasals and liquids, as also the long diphthongs āi, ēi, &c., were of such rare occurrence that they are here left out of consideration.
§ 14. a (Lat. a, Gr. a) remained, as Lat. ager, Gr. agroV, Goth. akrs, OS. akkar, OHG. ackar, field, acre; Lat. aqua, Goth. ahua, OHG. aha, water,
§ 15. e (Lat. e, Gr. e) remained, as Lat. ferō, Gr. fero, I bear, OHG. OS. OE. beran, to bear; Lat. pellis, Gr. pella, OHG. fël, OE. fell, skin, hide.
§ 16. i (Lat. i, Gr. i) remained, as Gr. Horn. jiden, Goth. witum, OE. witon, OS. witun, OHG. wižžun, we know; cp. Lat. videre, to see; Lat. piscis, Goth. fisks, OE. fisc, OS. OHG. fisk, fish.
§ 17. o (Lat. o, Gr. o) became a, as Lat. octo, Gr. oktw, Goth. ahtáu, OS. OHG. ahto, eight; Lat. hostis, stranger, enemy, Goth. gasts, OS. OHG. gast, guest.
§ 18. u (Lat. u, Gr. u) remained, as Gr. kunoz (gen. sing.), Goth. hunds, OE. hund, OHG. hunt, dog, hound; Lat. gustus, taste; Goth. ga-kusts, OS. OHG. kust, test, choice.
§ 19. ā (Lat. ā, Gr. a, h) became ō, as Lat. māter, Gr Dor. mathr, OE. mōdor, OS. mōdar, mother; Lat. fāgus beech, Gr. Dor. fagoz, oak, Goth. bōka, letter of the alphabet, OE. bōc-trēow, beech-tree, OS. bōk, beech.
§ 20. ē (Lat. ē, Gr. h) remained, but it is generally written āē (=Goth. ē, OE. āē, OS. OHG. ā) in works on Germanic philology, as Lat. ēdimus, Goth. ētum, OE. āēton, OHG. āžun, we ate; Lat. mensis, Gr. mhn, month, Goth. mēna, OS. OHG. māno. moon.
§ 21. ī (Lat. ī, Gr. i) remained, as Lat. su- īnus (adj.), belonging to a pig, Goth. swein, OE. OS. OHG. swīn, pig; Lat. sīmus, OHG. sīm, we may be.
§ 22. ō (Lat. ō, Gr. w) remained, as Gr. plwtoz, swimming, Goth. flōdus, OE. OS. flōd flood, tide, cp. Lat. plōrāre, to weep aloud; Gr. Dor. pwz, Goth. fōtus, OE. OS. fōt, foot.
§ 23. ū (Lat. ū, Gr. u) remained, as Lat. mūs, Gr. muz, OE. OHG.mūs, mouse; Lat. sūs, Gr. uz, OE. OHG. sū, sow, pig.
§ 24. ai (Lat. ae (ē), Gr. ai, Goth. ai, OE. ā, OS. ē, OHG. ei (ē)) remained, as Lat. aedēs, originally fire-place, hearth, Gr. aiqw, I burn, OE. ād, OHG. eit, ignis, rogus; Lat. aevum, Gr. aiwn, Goth. áiws, OHG. ēwa, time, life-time, eternity.
§ 25. ei (Lat. ī (older ei), Gr. ei) became ī, as Gr. steicw, I go, Goth. steigan, OE. OS. OHG. stīgan, to ascend; Gr. leipo, I leave, Goth. leihran, OHG. līhan, to lend.
§ 26. oi (Gr. oi) became ai (cp. § 17), as Gr. oide, Goth. wáit, OE. wāt, OS. wēt, OHG. weiž, he knows; O.Lat. oinos, Goth. áins, OE. ān, OS. ēn, OHG. ein, one, cp. Gr. oinh, the ace on dice.
§ 27. au (Lat. au. Gr. au, Goth. áu, OE. ēa, OS. ō, OHG. ou(ō)) remained, as Lat. auris, Goth. áusō, OE. ēare, OS. OHG. ōra, ear; Lat. augēre, to increase, Gr. auxanw, 1 increase, Goth. áukan, OHG. ouhhōn, to add, increase, OE. ēacen (pp.), increased, large.
§ 28. eu (Gr. eu) remained, as Gr. peuqomai, I inquire, prim. Germ. *beudō, I inquire, offer; Gr. geuw, I give a taste of, prim. Germ. *keusō, I test, choose. See § 56.
§ 29. ou became au (cp. § 17), as Indo-Germ. *roudhos, Goth. ráuþa, OE. rēad, OS. rōd, OHG. rōt, red', Indo-Germ. *bhe-bhoudhe, has waked, Goth. báuþ, OE. bēad, OS. bōd, OHG. bōt, he offered.
§ 30. m (Lat. em, Gr. a, am) became um, as amo- (in amoqen, from some place or other), Goth. sums, OE. OS. OHG. sum, some one; Gr. ekaton, Lat. centum (with n from m by assimilation, and similarly in the Germanic languages), Goth. OE. OS. hund, OHG. hunt, all from a prim. form *kmtóm.
§ 31. n (Lat. en, Gr. a, an) became un, as Lat. com-mentus (pp.) invented, devised, Gr. auto-matoz, acting of one’s own will, Goth. ga-munds, OHG. gi-munt, remembrance, prim. form *mntós (pp.) from root men-, think; OE. wundor, OS. wundar, OHG. wnntar, wonder, cp. Gr.aqrew (from
*faqrew), I gaze at.
§ 32. r (Lat. or, Gr. ar, ra) became ur, ru, as OE. dur-ron, OHG. gi-turrun, we dare, cp. Gr. qarsuz (qrasuz), bold, qarsew, I am of good courage; dat. pl. Gr. patrasi, Goth. fadrum, OE. fæd(e)rum, to fathers, Lat. porca, the ridge between two furrows; OE. furh, OHG. furuh, furrow.
§ 33. 1 (Lat. ol, Gr. al, la) became ul, lu, as Golh. fulls OE. OS. full, OHG. vol, prim. form *plnós, full; Goth wulfs, OE. OS. wulf, OHG. wolf, prim. form *włqos, Skr vŕkas, wolf.
Note.—The u in um, un, ur, ru, ul, lu had the same further development in the Germanic languages as Indo-Germanic u. See § 39.